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Topic 6: Reshaping America in the Early 1800s Study Guide



Multiple Choice
Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.
 

 1. 

(2 points) Based on the map, why would the United States most likely have an interest in western lands?


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a.
to cut off Spanish Mexico from British Canada
b.
to control land from the Pacific to the Atlantic Coasts
c.
to eliminate threats from American Indians
d.
to have access to the farmlands of the Great Plains
 

 2. 

(2 points) In order for the United States to expand westward, with which country would it most likely come into conflict?
a.
France
b.
Mexico
c.
Canada
d.
Britain
 

 3. 

(2 points) Oh! times are tough, amazing rough,
Expenses are alarming,
I will go West, it’s far the best,
Try my luck at farming.
For the idea of staying here
To just earn your gruel,
Makes me feel sad and sometimes mad
‘Tis so awful cruel.
—J.P. Barrett, “I Will Go West!”, 1875

What does the excerpt reveal about the motivations of Americans who migrated westward during the 1800s?
a.
They sought to live in the wilderness without governance.
b.
They meant to help claim lands from American Indians.
c.
They wanted to escape the restrictions of urban life.
d.
They hoped to find better lives and economic opportunity.
 

 4. 

(2 points) Resolved, That as Saints of the HIGHEST we will not turn back to the beggarly elements of the world, but will press forward and not rest satisfied until we reach a place that we can call our own, “where Righteousness shall flow down our streets as a River,” where the glad voices of God’s People shall sing unmolested the songs of Zion in new anthems of praise that shall be as enduring as the everlasting Hills.”
Resolved and Re-resolved, That whatever our worthy President may think proper for us to do, “we will do it with our might,” “for in unity there is strength,” that we will carry out the purpose of God, if he makes use of us as his instruments to the fullest extent, God being our helper.”
—J.C. Little, President of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints, in the Eastern States, May 15, 1846

According to the excerpt, why did the Mormons migrate west and establish the colony that would become Utah?
a.
to find better lands for farming
b.
to practice their religious beliefs freely
c.
to reject American systems of government
d.
to escape hardship and scarcity
 

 5. 

(2 points) The excerpt below best supports which of the following conclusions?

ARTICLE XI. In consideration of the advantages and benefits conferred by this treaty and the many pledges of friendship by the United States, the tribes who are parties to this agreement hereby stipulate that they will relinquish all right to occupy permanently the territory outside their reservations as herein defined, but yet reserve the right to hunt on any lands north of North Platte, and on the Republican Fork of the Smoky Hill river, so long as the buffalo may range thereon in such numbers as to justify the chase. And they, the said Indians, further expressly agree:
1st. That they will withdraw all opposition to the construction of the railroads now being built on the plains.
2d. That they will permit the peaceful construction of any railroad not passing over their reservation as herein defined.
3d. That they will not attack any persons at home, or travelling, nor molest or disturb any wagon trains, coaches, mules, or cattle belonging to the people of the United States, or to persons friendly therewith.
—Treaty of Fort Laramie, 1868
a.
The United States dealt fairly with American Indians through a series of economic and political transactions to their mutual benefit.
b.
The United States avoided conflict with American Indians by providing ample land on which they might sustain their ways of life independently.
c.
The United States sought to contain American Indians on reservations to protect westward expansion and settlement.
d.
The United States hoped to integrate American Indians through assimilation practices such as farming and education.
 

 6. 

(2 points) Based on the area’s geography, into which Spanish territory was the United States most likely to expand first?
a.
Texas
b.
California
c.
Oregon
d.
New Mexico
 

 7. 

(2 points) The excerpt below shows the intention of Texas settlers to do which of the following?

We, the People of Texas, in order to form a Government, establish justice, ensure domestic tranquility, provide for the common defence and general welfare; and to secure the blessings of liberty to ourselves, and our posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution.
—Constitution of the Republic of Texas, 1836
a.
form an independent nation
b.
establish an American colony
c.
join with Mexico
d.
join with the United States
 

 8. 

(2 points) Which of the following compromises offered a solution to the problem posed by Texas?
a.
acquisition of Oregon Territory
b.
extension of Texas borders
c.
admission of California as a state
d.
prohibition of slavery in Louisiana Territory
 

 9. 

(2 points) In my message at the commencement of the present session I informed you that upon the earnest appeal both of the Congress and convention of Texas I had ordered an efficient military force to take a position "between the Nueces and the Del Norte." This had become necessary to meet a threatened invasion of Texas by the Mexican forces, for which extensive military preparations had been made. The invasion was threatened solely because Texas had determined, in accordance with a solemn resolution of the Congress of the United States, to annex herself to our Union, and under these circumstances it was plainly our duty to extend our protection over her citizens and soil.
—President James K. Polk, War Message to Congress, May 11, 1846

This excerpt best supports the conclusion that the Mexican-American War was a conflict over which central issue?
a.
political ideology
b.
economic relations
c.
civil rights abuses
d.
territorial disputes
 

 10. 

(2 points) Based on the map, which event secured the most land for the United States?


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a.
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
b.
annexation of Texas
c.
Texas independence
d.
Gadsden Purchase
 

 11. 

(2 points) The data in the chart provides evidence to support which conclusion?


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a.
Gold Rush migration and development devastated American Indian populations.
b.
The Mexican-American War resulted in the deaths of many American Indians.
c.
Manifest Destiny could only be accomplished by removal of American Indians.
d.
Westward expansion compelled most American Indians to migrate to reservations.
 

 12. 

(2 points) The data in the graph suggest that which of the following groups had the most influence on U.S. religious life during the time period shown?


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a.
Baptist
b.
Presbyterian
c.
Methodist
d.
Catholic
 

 13. 

(2 points) The image suggests that the Second Great Awakening


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a.
created mass gatherings far from established churches.
b.
encouraged the union of reason and faith.
c.
attracted small groups of devoted followers.
d.
helped reinforce church hierarchy.
 

 14. 

(2 points) The work of Henry David Thoreau most supported which aim of the Transcendentalist movement?
a.
to throw off the tyranny of government
b.
to accept the equality of all people
c.
to open the individual soul to God
d.
to seek truth within the individual and in nature
 

 15. 

(2 points) The Second Great Awakening contributed to increased popular support for which of the following?
a.
social reforms
b.
industrialization
c.
territorial expansion
d.
ethnic diversity
 

 16. 

(2 points) “The object of the Common School system is to give every child a free, straight, solid pathway by which he can walk directly up from the ignorance of an infant to the knowledge of the primary duties of man.

The highest service we can perform for others, is to help them help themselves.

Education is our only political safety. Outside of this ark, all is deluge.”
—Horace Mann

Which central issue does Horace Mann most attach to guaranteeing children a public education?
a.
inspiring religious devotion
b.
instituting a respect for authority
c.
ensuring economic equality
d.
improving government and society
 

 17. 

(2 points) What primary effect does this cartoon mostly hope to achieve for U.S. society?


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a.
less prosecution of criminal activity
b.
more sanitary conditions in cities
c.
elimination of the crimes that come from alcohol abuse
d.
reduced economic disparity
 

 18. 

(2 points) Which of the following events most likely led to the data pattern in the chart?


mc018-1.jpg
a.
introduction of the cotton gin to plantations
b.
prohibition of the Atlantic slave trade
c.
restrictions on slavery in northern states
d.
expansion of slaveholding territories westward
 

 19. 

(2 points) How did both Denmark Vesey and Nat Turner respond to slavery?
a.
They escaped by the Underground Railroad.
b.
They formed abolition movements in the South.
c.
They learned to read and write.
d.
They planned and led rebellions.
 

 20. 

(2 points) How did William Lloyd Garrison differ from most abolitionists of the early 1800s?
a.
He called for an immediate end to slavery.
b.
He worked mostly through established churches.
c.
He used techniques known as moral suasion.
d.
He spread abolitionist sentiment through articles and speeches.
 

 21. 

(2 points) The handbill mostly accuses abolitionists of


mc021-1.jpg
a.
driving apart the North and the South.
b.
inciting slave rebellions.
c.
trying to amend the Constitution.
d.
freeing enslaved persons.
 

 22. 

(2 points) What did the Gag Rule demand?
a.
no formerly enslaved persons be permitted to speak or write publicly
b.
no abolitionist literature be distributed in the South
c.
no discussion of slavery take place in Congress
d.
no abolitionists be permitted to appear in public schools
 

 23. 

(2 points) According to the chart, which of the following could be said about women in the 19th century?


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a.
They were largely uneducated and unskilled.
b.
They contributed little to the economy of the United States.
c.
They did not have the rights and responsibilities of citizens.
d.
They had little to no interest in the workings of government.
 

 24. 

(2 points) How did industrialization lead to improvements in the status of women?
a.
by exposing women to corruption and unsafe conditions
b.
by separating women from their families
c.
by providing economic opportunities outside of the home
d.
by granting women political roles and responsibilities
 

 25. 

(2 points) How did the Seneca Falls Convention spark the women's movement?
a.
Women were willing to work with men to end harsh property laws.
b.
For the first time, women openly demanded political rights.
c.
Women agreed to challenge the temperance movement.
d.
Elizabeth Stanton and Susan B. Anthony presented the draft of the "Declaration of Sentiments".
 

Essay
 

 1. 

(5 points) Explain  How did the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo help complete the goals of Manifest Destiny?
 

 2. 

(5 points) Connect  How did the Second Great Awakening help improve the status of women?
 



 
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