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Topic 8: Reconstruction Test



Multiple Choice
Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.
 

 1. 

(2 points) “If any apprentice shall leave the employment of his or her master or mistress, without his or her consent, said master or mistress may pursue and recapture said apprentice, and bring him or her before any justice of the peace of the county, whose duty it shall be to remand said apprentice to the service of his or her master or mistress; … and if the court shall be of opinion that said apprentice left the employment of his or her master or mistress without good cause, to order him or her to be punished, as provided for the punishment of hired freedmen, as may be from time to time provided for by law for desertion …”
—An Act to Confer Civil Rights on Freedmen, and for other Purposes, Tennessee, 1865

This law is an example of
a.
the black codes.
b.
the Reconstruction Acts.
c.
the Enforcement Acts.
d.
the Ten Percent Plan.
 

 2. 

(2 points) "In compliance with your request, I have come to give my views of the present condition of the rebel States—of the proper mode of reorganizing the Government, and the future prospects of the Republic. During the whole progress of the war, I never for a moment felt doubt or despondency. I knew that the loyal North would conquer the rebel despots who sought to destroy freedom. But since that traitorous confederation has been subdued, and we have entered upon the work of "reconstruction" or "restoration,” I cannot deny that my heart has become sad at the gloomy prospects before us.…We especially insist that the property of the chief rebels should be seized and appropriated to the payment of the National debt, caused by the unjust and wicked war which they instigated."
—Representative Thaddeus Stevens, Speech, 1865

In this speech excerpt, which Reconstruction issue does Stevens address?
a.
equal protection under the law
b.
loyalty oaths for Southern leaders
c.
confiscation of Southern land
d.
process of state readmission
 

 3. 

(2 points) “[The details of this bill] interfere with the municipal legislation of the States, with the relations existing exclusively between a State and its citizens, or between inhabitants of the same State — an absorption and assumption of power by the General Government which, if acquiesced in, must sap and destroy our federative system of limited powers…. It is another step, or rather stride, to centralization and the concentration of all legislative power in the National Government. The tendency of the bill must be to resuscitate the spirit of rebellion, and to arrest the progress of those influences which are more closely drawing around the States the bonds of union and peace.”
—President Andrew Johnson, veto of Civil Rights Bill, 1866

Which of the following conclusions is best supported by the excerpt from Andrew Johnson’s veto of the Civil Rights Bill of 1866?
a.
Johnson was a Southern Democrat.
b.
Johnson was a Radical Republican.
c.
Johnson supported states’ rights.
d.
Johnson favored a centralized government.
 

 4. 

(2 points) Which of the following issues contributed to conflict over Reconstruction?
a.
lack of constitutional guidance on secession
b.
power struggles among Democrats in Congress
c.
lack of interest in the executive branch
d.
divisions in the Supreme Court
 

 5. 

(2 points) During Reconstruction, Republicans dominated new stat governments because of
a.
Southern white voters who took loyalty oaths.
b.
the political support of former Confederates  who helped to establish new state and local governments.
c.
the political support of freed African Americans who voted Republican and took positions in state and local governments.
d.
the efforts of carpetbaggers and a new crop of women voters.
 

 6. 

(2 points) “The inquiry of course here is, Does the amendment as to the particular standard which this heading embraces involve the mere refusal to comply with the commands of the Fifteenth Amendment as previously stated?...The provision is this:

"But no person who was, on January 1, 1866, or at any time prior thereto, entitled to vote under any form of government, or who at that time resided in some foreign nation, and no lineal descendant of such person, shall be denied the right to register and vote because of his inability to so read and write sections of such constitution."

We have difficulty in finding words to more clearly demonstrate the conviction we entertain that this standard has the characteristics which the Government attributes to it than does the mere statement of the text. It is true it contains no express words of an exclusion from the standard which it establishes of any person on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude prohibited by the Fifteenth Amendment, but the standard itself inherently brings that result into existence since it is based purely upon a period of time before the enactment of the Fifteenth Amendment and makes that period the controlling and dominant test of the right of suffrage.”
—Guinn v. United States, 1915

Which voting practice did this Supreme Court decision address?
a.
grandfather clause
b.
voter intimidation
c.
poll tax
d.
white primary
 

 7. 

(2 points) In this Topic, you read the following paragraph:
"After 1872, on account of the federal government's readiness to use legal action, there was a decline in violence against Republicans and African Americans. The hatred may have been contained, but it was from extinguished. Smoldering beneath the surface, it would flare up in the coming decades."

This passage describes the effects of which legislative action?
a.
Fifteenth Amendment
b.
Jim Crow laws
c.
Enforcement Acts
d.
Compromise of 1877
 

 8. 

(2 points) How does this cartoon portray the South during the Grant administration (on the left) and during the Hayes administration (on the right)?


mc008-1.jpg
a.
Under Grant, the South is producing cash crops, while under Hayes it is growing only food crops.
b.
Under Grant, the South is rural, while under Hayes it is urbanized.
c.
Under Grant, the South is oppressed, while under Hayes it is thriving.
d.
Under Grant, the South is thriving, while under Hayes it is once again oppressed.
 

 9. 

(2 points) Why did tenant farmers need to be better at managing money than sharecroppers?
a.
They controlled more of their own planning and finances.
b.
They managed the financial accounts of the landowner.
c.
They were landowners and had to pay for an agricultural license.
d.
They oversaw sharecroppers who worked for the landowner.
 

 10. 

(2 points) The Civil Rights Act of 1866 sought to abolish the black codes by
a.
dissolving the new state constitutions.
b.
blocking readmission of Southern states.
c.
impeaching Andrew Johnson.
d.
using federal legislation to overrule state laws.
 

 11. 

(2 points) “…[The] said Cooper Hughs Freedman with his wife…are to work on said farm and to cultivate forty acres in corn and twenty acres in cotton, to assist in putting the fences on said farm in good order and to keep them so and to do all other work on said farm necessary to be done to keep the same in good order and to raise a good crop and to be under the control and directions of said IG Bailey and to receive for their said services one half of the cotton and one third of the corn and fodder raised by them on said farm in said year 1867….And the said IG Bailey party of the first part, agrees and binds himself to furnish necessary Mules and farming implements to cultivate said crop…”
—Contract, Marshall County, Mississippi, 1867

What kind of arrangement is agreed to in this contract?
a.
tenant farming
b.
sharecropping
c.
indentured labor
d.
share-tenancy
 

 12. 

(2 points) Which of the following directly contributed to the changes between 1872 and 1876 shown in the presidential election maps?


mc012-1.jpg
a.
Redeemer strategy
b.
Wade-Davis Bill
c.
women’s suffrage
d.
urbanization
 

 13. 

(2 points) “As long as the shadow of the great house falls across you, you ain’t going to feel like no free man and no free woman.”
—African American Minister

This quotation reflects the desire of many newly freed slaves to
a.
turn plantation houses into churches.
b.
punish former slaveholders.
c.
invest in educational opportunities.
d.
pursue a fresh start in a new place.
 

 14. 

(2 points) Which statement from the text is supported by the information in the graph?


mc014-1.jpg
a.
“African American farmers who sold their crops often found the value lower than anticipated.”
b.
“Many of the South’s problems resulted from the uneven distribution of land.”
c.
“A few African American men…were able to gather together the means to buy land.”
d.
“The plan developed by General Sherman and the Radical Republicans to give or sell land to freed people did not provide a solution.”
 

 15. 

(2 points) “I, [name], do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I have never voluntarily borne arms against the United States since I have been a citizen thereof; that I have voluntarily given no aid, countenance, counsel, or encouragement, to persons engaged in armed hostility thereto; that I have neither sought nor accepted, nor attempted to exercise the functions of any office whatever, under any authority or pretended authority in hostility to the United States; that I have not yielded a voluntary support to any pretended government, authority, power, or constitution, within the United States, hostile or inimical thereto.”
—“Ironclad Test Oath,” 1864

This oath, used by the United States Congress, was primarily intended to eliminate which group from elected office?
a.
northern carpetbaggers
b.
Confederate sympathizers
c.
Union deserters
d.
southern scalawags
 

 16. 

(2 points) In this Topic, you read the following text:
"The Freedmen’s Bureau helped reunite families that had been separated by slavery and war. It negotiated fair labor contracts between former slaves and white landowners. By representing African Americans in the courts, the Bureau also established a precedent that black citizens had legal rights. The Freedmen’s Bureau continued its efforts until 1872."

Based on the text, which piece of legislation would eventually extend the legal goals of the Freedmen’s Bureau?
a.
the black codes
b.
Fourteenth Amendment
c.
Ten Percent Plan
d.
Thirteenth Amendment
 

 17. 

(2 points) During Reconstruction, which of the following was a way African American churches worked to develop new leaders in the community?
a.
training women to be nurses
b.
establishing the first public vocational schools
c.
providing a platform for organizing and group planning
d.
giving jobs to unemployed carpetbaggers
 

 18. 

(2 points) Which of the following was a consequence of the Supreme Court decisions in 1883 called the Civil Rights cases?
a.
The Ku Klux Klan lost a great deal of influence.
b.
The Fifteenth Amendment gained popularity in the West.
c.
States and municipalities could impose segregation on public accommodations.
d.
Reconstruction was forced to end.
 

 19. 

(2 points) In what way did Booker T. Washington think the Tuskegee Institute could best help the African American community?
a.
by providing advanced education in medicine and law
b.
by providing integrated education
c.
by organizing civil rights rallies
d.
by teaching practical skills
 

 20. 

(2 points) “This equality of right, with exemption from all disparaging and partial enactments, in the lawful pursuits of life, throughout the whole country, is the distinguishing privilege of citizens of the United States. To them, everywhere, all pursuits, all professions, all avocations are open without other restrictions than such as are imposed equally upon all others of the same age, sex, and condition. The State may prescribe such regulations for every pursuit and calling of life as will promote the public health, secure the good order and advance the general prosperity of society, but, when once prescribed, the pursuit or calling must be free to be followed by every citizen who is within the conditions designated, and will conform to the regulations. This is the fundamental idea upon which our institutions rest, and, unless adhered to in the legislation of the country, our government will be a republic only in name. The fourteenth amendment, in my judgment, makes it essential to the validity of the legislation of every State that this equality of right should be respected. How widely this equality has been departed from, how entirely rejected and trampled upon by the act of Louisiana, I have already shown. And it is to me a matter of profound regret that its validity is recognized by a majority of this court, for by it the right of free labor, one of the most sacred and imprescriptible rights of man, is violated.”
—Justice Stephen Field, dissenting opinion, 1873

Which Supreme Court decision does Justice Field address in this statement?
a.
Plessy v. Ferguson
b.
United States v. Cruikshank
c.
Slaughterhouse Cases
d.
Dred Scott v. Sandford
 

 21. 

(2 points) Which of the following made the activity shown in this drawing possible?


mc021-1.jpg
a.
Plessy v. Ferguson
b.
Fifteenth Amendment
c.
publication of Free Speech
d.
Fourteenth Amendment
 

 22. 

(2 points) Which of the following was a lasting effect of Reconstruction?
a.
diversification of the southern economy
b.
successful implementation of the Fifteenth Amendment
c.
integration of public education
d.
Republican dominance in southern states
 

 23. 

(2 points) Which of the following best accounts for the number of southern votes cast for Johnson’s impeachment?


mc023-1.jpg
a.
Only a few southern representatives were Democrats.
b.
Southern states only had voting rights in the House of Representatives.
c.
Only a few southern states had been readmitted to the Union.
d.
Most southern representatives disliked Johnson.
 

 24. 

(2 points) Which of the following was a key objective for the passage of the Military Reconstruction Act of 1867?
a.
to allow for a delay in the readmission of Southern states to the Union as requested by Congress
b.
to allow the military to legally confiscate war supplies found on private property as a means of prevention
c.
to make the implementation of military rule a possible deterrent for other states considering secession
d.
to make it easier for Southern states to reenter the Union after the Fourteenth Amendment was passed
 

 25. 

(2 points) In this Topic, you read the following text:
"Beginning with the state conventions required by Johnson, southern leaders proceeded to rebuild their prewar world. Many states specifically limited the vote to white men. Some states sent their Confederate officials to the U.S. Congress. All of the states instituted black codes—laws that sought to limit the rights of African Americans and keep them as landless workers.

The codes required African Americans to work in only a limited number of occupations, most often as servants or farm laborers. Some states prohibited African Americans from owning land, and all set up vagrancy laws. These laws stipulated that any black person who did not have a job could be arrested and sent to work as prison labor."

According to the passage, when African Americans faced vagrancy laws they struggled to earn money because of both limited employment opportunities and
a.
punishment for being out of work.
b.
collapse of the agricultural economy.
c.
the renewed threat of slavery.
d.
denial of voting rights.
 

Essay
 

 1. 

(5 points) Compare and contrast the approaches of Booker T. Washington and W.E.B. Du Bois to civil rights issues.
 

 2. 

(5 points) Distinguish between the primary purposes of the Thirteenth, Fourteenth, and Fifteenth Amendments.
 



 
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