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Topic 1: Introduction: America's Cultural Roots



Multiple Choice
Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.
 

 1. 

Based on this map, which environmental change would have most encouraged migration by land from Asia to the Americas?


mc001-1.jpg
 
a.
a decline in sea levels
b.
an increase in average temperatures
c.
a decrease in extent of glacial cover
d.
an increase in strength of sea currents
 

 2. 

How would climate change have affected Paleo-Indians’ way of life?
a.
It forced them to leave a cooling Asia to resettle in the Americas.
b.
The extinction of large mammals forced them to seek other sources of food.
c.
Rising seas led to the destruction of existing cities.
d.
Cultural diversity declined due to increased trade connections.
 

 3. 

Which of the following developments correctly completes the sequence of events?


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a.
emergence of agriculture
b.
formation of regional governments
c.
introduction of large livestock
d.
contact with Europeans
 

 4. 

Study this table. Which feature in all the American Indian cultures reveals the influence of the cultures of central Mexico?


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a.
agricultural villages
b.
irrigation canals
c.
shelters made of bison skins
d.
adobe brick structures
 

 5. 

What kind of evidence about the Anasazis’ way of life does this photograph provide?


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a.
They developed a trading relationship with Meso-American cultures.
b.
They lived in the Eastern Woodlands and depended on hunting.
c.
They lived in settled communities and practiced agriculture.
d.
They were a nomadic society, always on the move.
 

 6. 

How did American Indians in the Southwest adapt to the harsh geographic conditions exemplified by this photograph?


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a.
by building irrigation canals
b.
by relying on hunting
c.
by migrating to more fertile areas
d.
by trading adobe goods for food
 

 7. 

Based on the map, which inference can you draw about trade in the early empires of West Africa?


mc007-1.jpg
a.
West Africans wished mostly to obtain exotic goods from South and East Asia.
b.
European traders had the power to set prices and trade routes for West Africans.
c.
West Africans had mutually beneficial trade relationships with Portugal.
d.
Enslaved peoples were mostly traded between West Africa and other places.
 

 8. 

Gold was at a high price in Egypt until [Mansa Musa’s caravan] came in that year. The mithqal did not go below 25 dirhams and was generally above, but from that time its value fell and it cheapened in price and has remained cheap till now. The mithqal does not exceed 22 dirhams or less. This has been the state of affairs for about twelve years until this day by reason of the large amount of gold which they brought into Egypt and spent there. …
-Al-Umari , 1324

What conclusion about the empire of Mali ruler Mansa Musa is best supported by this excerpt?
a.
It suffered greatly due to Mansa Musa’s greed.
b.
It built up stores of gold through long-distance trade.
c.
It engaged in expansionary wars in Egypt and North Africa.
d.
It commanded greater wealth than other empires of its time.
 

 9. 

Trading routes linked the kingdoms of West Africa most directly to cultures in which region?
a.
South America
b.
Northern Africa
c.
Northern Europe
d.
Western India
 

 10. 

“We have also markets. . . . These are sometimes visited by stout mahogany-coloured men from the south west of us. . . . They always carry slaves through our land; but the strictest account is exacted of their manner of procuring them before they are suffered to pass. Sometimes indeed we sold slaves to them, but they were only prisoners of war, or such among us as had been convicted of kidnapping, or adultery, and some other crimes, which we esteemed heinous.
-Olaudah Equiano, The Interesting Narrative of the Life of Olaudah Equiano

From this excerpt, written by a West African, what one can be inferred about the practice of slavery among West Africans?
a.
Portuguese traders greatly expanded the West African slave trade.
b.
West Africans treated enslaved people fairly and kindly.
c.
Slavery was not based on race or parentage.
d.
Enslaved people were mostly forced to serve as soldiers.
 

 11. 

Which of the following spiritual practices would most likely have been a feature of the cultures of both West Africans and American Indians before 1500?
a.
religious study of the Islamic holy text
b.
organized Christian religious services
c.
rituals honoring deceased ancestors
d.
belief in the spiritual authority of rulers
 

 12. 

When the Portuguese first sailed along the coast of Africa, they were largely interested in gold. As they began to extend their influence, Portuguese explorers established a profitable trade with the people of West Africa. They exported a variety of goods, including peppers, ivory, copper, and African slaves.
–Pearson, United States History, Characteristics of West African Societies

Which conclusion about the slave trade is best supported by the excerpt??
a.
Enslaved Africans had a value roughly equal with peppers or copper.
b.
African trade goods were difficult to transport overland.
c.
Slave trade networks existed in West Africa before the 1500s.
d.
Portuguese traders lost interest in gold after engaging in the slave trade.
 

 13. 

What historical development does the map suggest?


mc013-1.jpg
a.
West Africans became a part of the growing Portuguese empire.
b.
Portugal’s increasing interest in trade with West Africa.
c.
Portuguese navigators became interested in reaching South America.
d.
Trade connections between West Africa and other African regions declined.
 

 14. 

How did life in European towns like the one shown here differ from life on feudal estates?


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a.
It had less cultural and social diversity.
b.
It came under the direct authority of the monarch.
c.
It forced more people to live in poverty.
d.
It offered greater access to goods and ideas.
 

 15. 

Under which heading in the chart below would you place the information Made up the smallest portion of all Europeans?


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a.
Aristocrats, because the European elite was only 5 percent.
b.
Middle class, because they lived mostly in a few cities.
c.
Peasants, because the Black Death had killed most poor Europeans.
d.
Peasants, because many people had began to emigrate to the Americas.
 

 16. 

How did the series of events described in this infographic contribute to the rise of the Renaissance in Europe?


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a.
New ideas and exchanges increased intellectual interest in the world.
b.
The difficulties of the campaigns ended the power of the Catholic Church.
c.
Middle Eastern technology eliminated the need for most people to farm.
d.
The casualties of the long years of fighting decimated the peasant population.
 

 17. 

There, the kingdoms of Aragon, Castile, and Portugal were waging the reconquista (reconquest) to drive out the Muslim Moors who had ruled Iberia for centuries. In 1469, the marriage of Prince Ferdinand and Queen Isabella united Aragon and Castile to create “Spain.” In 1492, Ferdinand and Isabella completed the reconquista by seizing Granada, the last Muslim stronghold in Iberia. Long and violent, the reconquista inspired a zealous crusading spirit for spreading the Christian faith.
-Pearson, United States History, The Portuguese and Spanish Explore New Routes

Which generalization about Renaissance-era Spain is best supported by the excerpt?
a.
The ideas of the Muslim Moors spurred a Spanish drive for exploration.
b.
The reconquista prepared Spain for further territorial expansion.
c.
A united Spain was less powerful than the diverse kingdoms that preceded it.
d.
Competition with the Portuguese was the most important concern for Spanish leaders.
 

 18. 

What does this Portuguese primary source map of India and other regions suggest about Portuguese attitudes in the 1500s?


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a.
Poor technology hampered Portuguese navigation efforts.
b.
The Portuguese were fascinated by the unfamiliar regions that were opening up.
c.
Sailors were afraid to explore unknown territories and waters.
d.
Merchants valued the slave trade as the most important route.
 

 19. 

They should be good servants and intelligent, for I observed that they quickly took in what was said to them, and I believe that they would easily be made Christians, as it appeared to me that they had no religion. I, our Lord being pleased, will take hence, at the time of my departure six natives. . . .
—Journal of Christopher Columbus, October 1492

What important Spanish goal is revealed in this excerpt?
a.
They wanted to launch a new crusade against Islam.
b.
They sought a source of labor for plantations.
c.
They wanted to spread Christianity.
d.
They sought a direct route to Asia.
 

 20. 

Which reason best explains why Columbus believed he had reached the East Indies?
a.
He mistook the islands he reached for islands off the Asian mainland.
b.
He calculated he had sailed more than halfway around the globe.
c.
He reached an area previously explored by Europeans.
d.
He encountered people who had an abundant supply of gold and spices.
 

 21. 

Amerigo Vespucci's explorations of South America had what effect on Europeans’ knowledge of the globe?
a.
They now recognized South America as a continent.
b.
They believed there was no direct western route to the Indies.
c.
They recognized South America as a new continent.
d.
They no longer believed that the globe was flat.
 

 22. 

Which of the following developments resulted from the spread of European diseases among American Indians?
a.
An increase in the number of imported enslaved Africans.
b.
A decrease in the number European colonizers.
c.
An increase in the number of American Indian groups.
d.
A decrease in the number of Spanish plantations in the Americas.
 

 23. 

What objection did American Indians most likely have to the work of Spanish missionaries?
a.
Missionaries represented the Catholic Church.
b.
Missionaries forced Indians to give up their traditions.
c.
Missionaries carried European diseases to the Americas.
d.
Missionaries had little interest in seeking gold and riches.
 

 24. 

Which of the following developments caused the Spanish to initially lose interest in northern lands such as Florida and Texas?
a.
Explorers failed to find gold or silver in this region.
b.
The Pueblo Indians staged a revolt.
c.
Spanish explorers were unable to find a constant supply of food.
d.
The French attacked the Spanish in this region.
 

 25. 

Which of the following was a main characteristic of both Spanish and French colonization?
a.
development of trading alliances with natives
b.
intention to create a vast American empire
c.
enslavement of native laborers
d.
desire to find wealth and resources
 

 26. 

How did the settlement of Louisiana benefit France?
a.
Mercantilist policies of France encouraged commerce in the colony.
b.
Agriculture, while seasonal, was especially profitable.
c.
Louisiana became a significant military base.
d.
France established important treaties with Native Americans.
 



 
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